On Photography in the Museum Context

“All photographs are memento mori.”
Susan Sontag, On Photography, 1977.

Since the beginnings of photography in the early 19th century, the camera has equally served the twin masters of science and art. For the first in the history of humanity we could capture images “as is” without the intercession of an illustrator’s interpretation. Whether it was glass, or metal, or digital sensor, the captured image was held sacrosanct as the objective truth.
This paper will be an examination of that role as a “truth bearer” in a museum context. We will be discussing practical aspects of contemporary digital photography, legal aspects of image making, and finally a meditation on its philosophical/ aesthetic aspects.

Generally speaking, archival photography is an extension of curatorship, which is to say it is about the preservation of information. It is for this reason, a very accurate record of the item is an absolute necessity, particularly since items decay, are destroyed, or lost, or traded away.
The archival photograph must be evenly lit, with some kind of scaling device for size and color included. It should be captured, ideally, in the RAW format and saved as a TIF, or other lossless format.
When a digital camera records an image, it records far more detail than the eye can see. It is for this reason that the camera will discard most of the image’s data, yielding by agreed upon default what we refer to as a JPEG. (1) An image captured in the RAW (a literal term, not an acronym) format contains and preserves all of the information that the camera recored. It is sometimes referred to as a “digital negative”. Unlike film, a “digital negative” is not reversed image, but rather a file that contains all the possible information that the image could possibly yield. For archival purposes, the entire RAW file, with included tonality and scaling device (2) in the image, needs to be saved.
The standard operating procedure is to then derive a “work” file and a “catalogue” file from the archival image. This is done by duplicating, then editing the original image. At this point, the scaling device may be cropped out, and the image “levels” may be adjusted to make a visually more pleasing, “palatable”, image. (3) All images must be saved in a lossless format such as a TIF. (4)
TIF is an acronym for Tagged Image File Format. (Or sometimes Thousands of Incompatible File Formats.) The main advantage to the TIF is that it is a lossless format, as opposed to the humble JPEG, which is lossy. Simply put, the JPEG loses information every time it is opened, altered, then saved, because it self cannibalizes information to run the procedure. It does take quite a few operations before this is noticeable, but none the less… The TIF on the other hand, with zero compression, loses no information.
The zeros and ones of the digital archive file are useless, of course, without a compatible , flexible interpretive reading system. Platform migration, wherein data is transferred from to system or format to another, must be anticipated. The Mission of all museums is to preserve information for the ages. There has always been a subtle post- apocalyptic feel to all museums. The future hold out remnants from when our current civilization will become its past.
We are but in the first era of digital preservation, something new in the history of the human race. As artifacts become digitized, the relevance of the artefact itself diminishes, and in fact becomes secondary. It is the information of the artefact that the future will need. A clay pot is a clay pot. It is the existential fact of this particular clay pot belonged to such and such people, who lived here, and thought like this… that is of interest.
My argument is in the primacy of the information over the simple fact of object being. This information must be transferrable from platform to platform, in a manner not dissimilar from word-of-mouth migration thats served us for generations.

Copyright is considered to be “not a natural right, but a social construction… enacted through federal statute.” (Maher) The United States Constitution states: “The Congress shall have the power… To promote the Progress of Science and the useful Arts, by securing for Limited times to Authors and Inventors the exclusive Right to their respective Writings and Discoveries.” (Article 1, Section 8).
“It may seem unfair that much of the fruit of the compiler’s labor may be used by others without compensation. As Justice Brennan has correctly observed, however, this is not some “unforeseen byproduct of statutory scheme.” It is, rather, “the essence of copyright” (ibid) and a constitutional requirement. The primary objective of copyright is not to reward the labor of authors, but to “Promote the progress of Science and the useful Arts”, (Article 1, section 8, US Constitution) Justice Sandra Day O’Connor. (Harper and Row, 471 U.S., at 589 (dissenting
A wise man once said, “all copyright questions can be reduced to two answers: 1) Yes, but… and, 2) No, however…” (Maher) Since the (Copyright Act of 1970), any work done by anyone is copyrighted to that creator. This is sometimes referred to as “Initial Ownership”. Registration is no longer required, however it is needed for fiscal litigation’s recovery. That being said, however, generally speaking, any creative work done at the behest of an employer, after 1978, is considered, unless otherwise agreed upon to be “work for hire”. Essentially, if the hiring party controls “the manner and means by which the product is accomplished” (Maher) it is Work for Hire.
This means that the hiring party owns the copyright to the work, and may use it as they see fit, without crediting the author. As Machiavellian as that may seem, it was standard business practice for many years. Until along came VARA.
The Visual Artists’ Rights Act of 1990, guarantees, starting June 1, 1991 on, and only for the life of the author, to claim authorship of their work, to prevent use of the authors name to works that are not theirs, to prevent use of the authors name in the event of distortion or mutilation of work, to prevent mutilation or distortion of work, and to prevent the destruction or modification of said work.
VARA derives these concepts from what we refer to as “French Moral Rights”. They are:
1) droit de divulgation. The right of creators to control the circumstances of the public release of the work.
2) droit de paternité. The right to claim authorship of ones one’s work, and the right to have works falsely attributed.
3) droit de suite. The right to a share in the fruits of one’s labor.

Remember our “yes, but/ no, however” answer to every copyright question? In an attempt to balance employer’s right with artists’ rights, the law allows for “wiggle room” by use of contract law. Here are some contractual situations:
First Rights. Legal “dibs”. Simply put, the hiring party gets the first opportunity to use or publish the work before anyone else.
Serial Rights. For publications, the right to use an image in publication format.
Non-Exclusive Rights. For shared images, often at the discretion of the hiring party.
One Time Use Rights. The hiring party has the right to use the image once, for a specific project.
Right of Refusal. Wherein an author must give their partner/employer the right to match a competitor’s interest in the work.

Title 17 of the United States Copyright Law, Section(s) 107 speaks to the public’s right of “Fair Use”. (See Appendix 1.) “Fair Use” is a term that gets thrown around a lot. §107 is a very short piece, (especially when compared to §108, our next subject) but its implications are very far reaching. Briefly, §107 allows copying (or “appropriation”) “for purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching (including multiple copies for classroom use), scholarship, or research…”
There are many factors that come in to play for eligibility of the Fair Use Doctrine. The purpose, the nature, the amount of material reproduced, and its effect on the market value of the original are the main considerations. Also under the general implications of Fair Use, aside from criticism, comment, and /or parody is the transformative nature of the new, “appropriated” work, generally meaning a re-contextualization.

“The distinction between what is fair use and what is infringement in a particular
case will not always be clear or easily defined. There is no specific number of words,
lines, or notes that may safely be taken without permission. Acknowledging the source
of the copyrighted material does not substitute for obtaining permission.”


§ 108 of the United States Copyright code speaks of limitations on exclusive rights, particularly reproductions by libraries, archives (and museums). (See Appendix 2) Allowed by §108 archivists et all are allowed to make copies of copyrighted works if 1) the copies themselves are non-commercial, 2) the copying institution is public in nature, and 3) original copyright notice is given. (“©”, or simply the word “copyright” and the year.)
§108 allows for up to three copies of unpublished works to be preserved/deposited if it is of something pre-exiting in the archivist’s records and that the copies do not leave the premises. Published works may be copied under similar limitations if the original is damaged if no unused replacement can be found and the copy is not made public.
Copying of a single article (for reference or loan) may be done if that copy is to be the sole responsibility of the copier (person) and the institution has prominently displayed a sign to that effect. An entire work can be copied if it cannot be obtained at a fair price. Again, the onus is on the copier.
None of this is to say that libraries or archive are to be held liable for unsupervised copying, exonerates anyone who tread past reasonable “fair use” (see next section), nor allows systematic reproduction and /or distribution of previously copyrighted works.
Due diligence and good faith are expected, even where §108 allows for exceptions.
On the subject of “Public Domain”- the even more convoluted companion to “Fair Use”. Complexities arise due the time of the implementation of the law and the expiration of that specific work’s copyright status.

Most basically, a work is considered Public Domain when the copyright on the work expires and has not been renewed, such as Grimm’s Fairy Tales, Musical Compositions from the Baroque era, most silent films, and so on. A simple definition would be:

“It should be a place of sanctuary for individual creative expression, a
sanctuary conferring affirmative protection against the forces of private
appropriation that threatened such expression” (Ronan p. 104)
In 1790 Congress passed the first federal copyright act, based on the Statute of Anne, (5) setting out a term of 14 years renewable for 14 years if the author was living. By 1831 it became 28 years, plus renewal for 14. 1909 saw the renewable extend to 28 years. The last major revision, the one that still holds for today is the 1976 revision, which gives term of life of the author plus 50 years, works for hire, 75.
So for something to fall into the public domain would depend entirely on its point of temporal origin. Works by authors who died in 1964 would as of, January 2014 go into public domain, if the copyright had not otherwise been sold and renewed.

Photographic theory began the day the first camera was invented.
Originally, the camera obscura (literally: hidden chamber, CF Latin.) was an artist’s tool. A box, a cabinet (6), if you will, some room-sized, some portable. This chamber, presciently, would be a dark (light tight, windowless) room, with a tiny, lensless hole in one wall that would project in image, if the light was strong enough, horizontally reversed, to the opposite wall, (7) where an artist would attach a piece of tracing vellum, and trace the image in caratouche (a waxy/chalky crayon). (8) These devices were much more commonplace than people suppose. They have been used, in one form or another by artists from Rembrant to Rockwell.
As time went on, the tracing vellum was replaced with a light sensitive medium, and the camera, as we know it, began.
Early “photographic theory” was expressed through invention. Louie Daguerre and Joseph Niépce worked together, after their early individual discoveries to make photography more user friendly. It began as a toy. Kitsch, a novelty, not to be taken seriously by the intelligentsia. Charles Baudelaire was aghast: “A vengeful God has granted the wishes of this multitude. Daguerre was his Messiah. …From that moment, our squalid society rushed, Narcissus to a man, to gaze at its trivial image on a scrap of metal…” (Sontag, p.190)
A most essential thing about the camera is its most base democratization of all things. In Robert Frank’s “The Americans” (1958) Jack Kerouc’s introduction remarked “After seeing these pictures you end up finally not knowing any more whether a jukebox is sadder than a coffin”. (Frank, p5). The camera is first and foremost a recording tool, with specific physical parameters of operation. The value of any image it produces is based upon the implication that it is of something that is out there. And in so doing shows us something about that thing that we could not see otherwise. As we survey a scene, our eyes are dart around, picking up pieces of information, we composite it in our mind’s eye. The camera gives it all to us in a glance. It breaks the world down into bit-sized morsels, to be handled, exchanged, framed, and even thrown away. And that is of no matter, because of course we can make more.
It is a young technology, one of the first of the modern technologies. As we stand now, in the second century of photography, we have had enough time to see meaning shift with time as it passes. It separates us from then, ordinary moments, out of context images from the not now, gaining a mysterious significance.
We have always had a nervous love-hate relationship with the camera. We were never comfortable with it, or its pictures of us. We range from confrontation to aversion. Dorothea Lange’s “Migrant Mother” averts her eyes, avoids the camera. Turn of the century postcard portraits look past the camera from the past. As we in the present stare past them.
We deny our own image in photographs the way we deny our voice in recordings.
By 1977, Susan Sontag, in her essay “In Plato’s Cave” would be able to say: “Needing to have reality confirmed and experience enhanced by photographs is an aesthetic consumerism to which every one is now addicted.” (p 24). The photograph has become the reality. Memories confabulate. The photograph confirms.

Notes for Photography in the Museum Context

1. JPEG stands for “Joint Experts Photography Group”, the name of the the committee that created that, as well as other photographic formats.

2. The industry standard is the “Kodak Color Separation Guide with Grey Scale”, generally referred to as a “Q Card”. They come in variety of sizes, and can be kind of pricey, $40-$60 for a piece of cardboard. The price one must pay…

3. This is similar to the way music is recorded. One has the “master tracks” where everything, drums, bass, vocals, etc are all set to the same middle level. The sound engineer then goes in and decides where to sonically “place” the various tracks.

4. Other lossless formats include: PNG (Portable Network Graphics), GIF (Graphics Interchange Format), BMP (Bitmap), and PSD (specific to Adobe Photoshop, it in fact stands for PhotoShop Document. Similar to a TIF, but it preserves the working Photoshop layers.)

5. An act of Parliament from roughly 1710, meant to protect printers from pirating and unauthorized copying.

6. “Cabinet” here slyly refers back to the Curiosity Cabinets of the mid-second millennium
wherein collectors would keep various item of natural ephemera. The term “cabinet” originally referred to a room, not a piece of furniture, (which is what they, of course, eventually became). These Cabin-ettes were the beginnings of Museums as we know them today. I am so clever.

7. This is the science of “optics”. The mathematics behind this is where the “focal length” concept comes from.
You can see this yourself by punching a hole in a piece of cardboard and putting it between a strong light and a wall. In the cardboard’s shadow, in the hole where the light comes through, will be, at point of focus, the image of the light emanating device. This is how you’re supposed to watch a solar eclipse, too.

8. “Caratouche” is from where the word “cartoon” derives. The image would then be transferred to its final support and then refined. Cartoons help one keep their perspective. In so many ways.


Barthes, Roland. Camera Lucida; Reflections On Photography. Farrar, Straus and Giroux, New York. 1980

Elkins, James (Editor). Photography Theory. Routledge Taylor and Francis Group, New York.

Frank, Robert. The Americans. Grove Press, New York, 1959.

Frizot, Michel (Editor). A New History of Photography. Könemann, Köln, Germany. 1998.

Greenough, Sarah (Editor). On the Art of Fixing A Shadow; One Hundred and Fifty Years of Photography. National Board Of Trustees, National Gallery of Art, Little, Brown and Company, Canada/U.S.A., 1989

Maher,William J. Copyright: The Archivist And The Law Handbook. SAA Workshop September 2014.

Ronan, Deazley. Rethinking Copyright:History, Theory, Language. Edward Elgar Publishing, Northampton, MA, 2006.

Sontag, Susan. On Photography. Farrar, Straus and Giroux, New York. 1978

Stieglitz, Alfred. Stieglitz On Photography; His Selected Essays and Notes. Sarah Greenough (editor). Aperture Foundation, New York. 2000

Weston, Edward. Edward Weston on Photography. Peter C. Bunnell (editor). Peregrine Smith Books, Salt Lake City, Utah. 1983

http://www.copyright.gov/title17/92chap1.html#107 and #108



(Practicum/ Internship) The Putnam Egg Project

Tuesday, 3 June, 2014.
Set up equipment. Discussed the handling of specimens. (Wash yo hands.) Goals. (Finish the damn thing.) The drawer numbering system. (Involved, but decipherable.) So I began with the basic settings of ISO 100 at f22 with an exposure compensation of -1 2/3, in the evaluative metering mode, wherein the camera meters and sets exposure for the overall scene. The negative exposure compensation factor “underexposes” the image so that in post, the levels can be brought up to the correct place. “Overexposure” results in blown out highlights, losing valuable information.
Start: 9:30 with Drawer 1.
Back: 1:30 Found that the battery will drain out after a few hours. In the Future will always recharge over lunch.
Finished: 5:00 with drawer 1, approximately 80 eggs. Did post-production work that night, another two hours.
Total Hours, Day 1: 8 hours.

Wednesday, 4 June, 2014.
Start: 10:00, due to staff meeting. Began drawer 2.
Lunch:1:30. Ran to studio and retrieved second SD card.
Back 2:30. Finished drawer 2, began drawer 3.
Finished: 5:00. Roughly 100 eggs shot. Did 3 hours post work that night, can see that shooting techniques need re-evaluating.
Total Hours, Day 2 9 hours.

Thursday, 5 June, 2014.
Start:9:30. Today I will try using an exposure compensation of -1 1/3 at f36 for maximum depth of field. Finished drawer 3 at 12:14.
Lunch: 12:40.
Back: 1:17. Redid from drawer 2 E 194.2 and E 191.2, and from drawer 1 E 126.2. Considering purchasing a grey card. 4:17, battery, despite luncheon recharge, craps out.
Finish: 4:36. Two hours post that evening.
Total hours, day 3: 8 hours, 15 minutes.
Miscellaneous post work over weekend: 8 hours.
Total Hours Week 1: 33:15.
Total Cumulative Hours: 33:15.

Tuesday 10 June, 2014.
Start: 9:30. Tried fixed-focal length (50mm only no zoom) lens. The purpose of which would be for greater accuracy of proportion. (Focal lengths under 50 will “bow”, or “fisheye”. I always keep the zoom at the maximum 55, occasionally nudging slightly down, but going no less than 50.) Not practical in this situation. I would need to be about a foot taller. Not going to happen at this stage of the game. Did however purchase grey card and perform calibration. Last night re-calibrated personal computer monitor. Will try shooting at -1 1/3 exposure compensation today. Re-shot drawer 1 126.1 and 106.2. Finished drawer 4 at 11:49.
Lunch: 12:30.
Back: 1:15. Finished drawer 5 at 4:10.
Finished: 4:21. Roughly two hours post that evening.
Total hours, Day 4: 8.

Wednesday, 11 June, 2014.
*No Rest For The Wicked Day*
Start: 9:30. It all began with dust on the sensor. Took the camera to the Camera Corner. The nice man cleaned said sensor for free. Out of guilt bought sensor cleaning kit, so that will never, ever happen again. Started drawer 6 at 11:10. Finished it at 1:55. Started drawer 7 at at 2:11. Battery craps out at 2:30. Recharge until 3:00. Battery craps out again at 4:30.
Finish at 5:00. Two hours of post work that night.
Total hours, Day 5: 10.5.

Thursday, 12 June, 2014.
Start: 9:30. Mom has physical therapy appointment at 1pm. Finish drawer 7 at 11:56.
End at 12:15. No post work that night.
Total hours, Day 6: 2.5.
Post work over weekend: 8.
Total hours, week 2: 30.
Total Cumulative Hours: 63.5.

Tuesday 17 June, 2014
Start: 9:30. Begin drawer 8. Left at 10:45 to meet with Ann Rowson-Love regarding registration SNAFU. Stopped by studio afterwards to review some experimental frames. I am changing the metering system from “evaluative”, wherein the camera regards the entire scene to establish exposure parameters, to “center-weighted”, wherein it just looks at the center of the image. Also experimented with Auto Exposure Bracketing, wherein for each frame, the camera fires three times, one at the given setting, one 1/3 below that setting, and one 1/3 above. Got back to the Putnam at 1:30, where I finished drawer 8, and the day, at 5:00.
That evening’s review shows me that this is the way to go. Will continue using this technique, with an exposure compensation base of -1 for the duration of the project. If time allows I should like to re-shoot at least the first three drawers. Edited for another two hours.
Total time for Day 7: 10 hours.

Wednesday, 18 June, 2014. Began at 9:30. Or tried to. My supervisor, is on vacation. The storeroom alarm was still armed and the only person with the code was in a meeting. After hanging out for a half hour, I left to run errands, have lunch, etc. Came back at 11:10, and still no one to be found. Went back to studio at that point to catch up on editing, which i did for approximately the next 7 hours.
Total time for Day 8: 7 hours.

Thursday, 19 June, 2014. In absentia today. No one will be there until late morning, and Mom has physical therapy in the early afternoon. Will edit in the studio as I can.
Total time, Day 9: 6 hours.
Weekend post work: 21.5
Total time Week 3: 27.5
Total Cumulative Hours: 91.

Tuesday, 24 June, 2014. Began at 9:30 with Drawer 9. Lunch at 11:30. Back at 12:30. Finished Drawer 9 at 2:20. Left to work at home at 2:30, for 4.5 hours there.
Total time, Day 10: 8.5 hours.

Wednesday, 25 June, 2014. Began at 9:30, To avoid burn-out, suggested, with approval, that I do one drawer a day, then knock off at that point, edit at home, and make fridays optional. We downloaded the first nine drawers into the system. Began and finished Drawer 10, redid Drawer Nine #204.1, left at 1:30. Worked at home for an additional 4 hours, not quite finalizing drawer 10 (This one was more painstaking, every mottled egg requires individual attention, otherwise photoshop sees the mottles as part of the background).
Total time, Day 11: 8 hours.

Thursday, 26 June, 2014. Started at 9:30, as per usual. Starting Drawer 11. Trying something different today; experimenting with shooting on a neutral grey background, for more accurate color rendition. Left at 1;30. Worked at home an additional 4 hours.
Total time, Day 12: 8 hours.

Friday. 27 June. 9:30 am. Changing set- yet again. Placing grey card under glass and made standing reflectors of white foam-core to up the illumination around the outer rim of the egg. Shot until 12:30. Worked at home another 6 hours that day. This method seems to work the best, though it doesn’t save me any time… Finished drawer 11.
Total time, Day 12: 10 hours.
Weekend post work:11 hours.
Total time, Week 4: 48 hours.
Total cumulative: 139 hours.

Monday, 30 June, 2014. Some further testing of above technique testing today., as well as investigating the feasibility of shooting in the RAW format. Began at 9:00 on Drawer 12, knocked off at 11. Worked at home an additional 4.5 hours.
Total time, day 13: 6.5.

Tuesday, 1 July, 2014. Two things resolved. 1) An exposure compensation of -1/3 will work for everything under these conditions, so there is no need to “bracket”, and that will be a great time-saver, and 2) RAW is good but not necessary for our purposes. The file is several times larger than the jpeg, and in that the purpose of all this is basic cataloging, would be overkill. However; I will shoot the occasional RAW file for aesthetic purposes, and from here on out any photo work that is intended to have artistic consequences will be shot in RAW+JPEG format, yes.
Began Day 14 at 9, finished Drawer 12 at noon. Worked at home an additional 4 hours, and was able to edit all of Drawer 12 in that time. This is huge.
Total time, Day 14: 7 hours.

Wednesday, 2 July, 2014
Began drawer 13 at 9:30, Lunch was 11:45 to 12:45. Left at 1pm to edit at home, 2 more additional hours. We are now moving into the Sargasso Sea of the Putnam Egg Collection, the Issuance of the Clocoa of the Wee Birdies, yes it’s teeny tiny egg time. Spoke to Chris Chandler regarding Fall Internship, and she mentioned there was still plenty of other projects that can be done. I have already committed to this project in my mind, and will continue to work it through the semester break, if need be, which it most probably will. Staying at the Putnam will give me even more lee-way to finish this damn thing up, so I am leaning in that direction, definitely. At least I get my revenge omelet that morning.
Total time, Day 15: 5 hours.

Thursday, 3 July, 2014.
Began at 11:30, left at 1:30. Worked 5.5 hours at home editing.
Total time, Day 16: 7.5 hours.

Weekend hours: 11.5
Total Hours Week 5: 26.
Total cumulative time: 165 hours.

Tues., 8 July. In at 9, out at 1. Work at home, 4 hours. Began Drawer 14.
Total Time, Day 17: 8 hours.

Wednesday, 9 July. In at 9:30, out at 2. A slight change up today. Photographed passenger pigeon mount and wood carved replica. Good times. Started working with a new lens today, a 60 mm macro. Fewer lens elements = more consistent image quality. damn well better. Expensive thing. Finished Drawer 14. Started the epic Drawer 15. Worked at home another 4 hours.
Total Time, day 18: 8.5 hours.

Thursday, 10 July, in at 9:30, out at 2:30, minus 1 hour lunch. Continuing with Drawer 15.
Worked at home 3 more hours.
Total time Day 19: 7 hours.
Weekend hours, 6.
Total time, Week 6: 29.5.
Total Cumulative: 194.5.

At his point we have far exceeded the 150 hour minimum, so I shall dispense with the blow-by-blow details. Drawer 15 is far and away the most difficult to get through. All very small plain white eggs. About 250 of them. I continued on with this the rest of this week for at least 10+ hours, finally finishing the dreaded Drawer 15 on the 17th of July, after which I began Drawer 16. At this point I am going in every day for at least 2 hours, monday through friday.
So as you can see, this project is going to continue on after the semester ends. At this point, I believe I am about 2/3s done. I will be working through the 3 week break, and then roll it all over into the internship next semester.
See you then…
Total hours, Week 8: 25.
Total Cumulative: 219.5.

Intern Log Fall Semester 2014

This internship is a continuation of my Summer 2014 Practicum Project, both overseen by Collections Manger Prof. Christine Chandler. It should also be understood that I worked this same project (and schedule) between the Summer and Fall semesters.
That project would be the photography and eventual cataloguing into the Electronic Museum Database (EMu) each individual specimen of the Putnam Museum of Science and History’s 3000+ bird egg collection. It was a daily project of at least two hours on site and a minimum of an hour’s work at home, fine tuning each image through Photoshop per day, with the at home work extending into the weekend. It has been an unending effort. The hours are incalculable. Suffice it to say, they are easily over the required 200.
The photographic aspect of the project thusly began in late may of 2014, and concluded on September 29th, 2014. At that point I began the process that would lead to cataloguing the project into EMu, which, at this time of writing, is still ongoing. I intend to volunteer, post graduation, until this god-damned thing is done.
In that every day was exactly the same, (Start at 9:30 go to noon. Work at home for another hour.) a day to day accounting would be unnecessarily redundant. What follows is a week by week summation of the work, as well as any points of interest or variation, as they occur.

25-29 August.
Photography on Drawers 24 and 25. Began experimenting with a white, as opposed to a black background. Gives the image a more pristine, clinical look. Also prevents the background from intruding on the body pattern of the egg, where dark splotches are near the edge. Cardinals, and the like. These, like most of the Putnam specimens, are over 100 years old.
1-5 September
Finished post work on Drawer 25, began photography on Drawer 26. Mid-sized birds, many eggs. Nearly 200 eggs, plus labels. This is a marathon, not a race.
8-12 September
Finished Drawer 26, began work on Drawer 27. The work continues in this manner to the end of the month. At that point I began the data entry into the Electronic Museum System (Emu).
30 September
Finished post work on egg project. Taking a couple days off.

1-2 October
Began photography on some Native American beadwork for Kris Castell.

3 October
Continuing photography of native american artifacts, when disaster struck. leak in roof in the archive (of course) room. Scrambled upstairs and assisted in removal of artifacts, clean up, and documentation.

6 October- 4 November
Work at home, replacing camera assigned Image Number with Putnam Catalogue Number. Hypnotically boring. “This is your life, ending one minute at a time…”

5 November
Began (finally) entering data into EMU. This is a multi-step process. All of the photography has gone into the system’s “Multimedia” folder. The image must be pulled from “Multimedia”, an then properly labeled. Once that is accomplished, it can then officially go into EMu.

This project moved my photographic skills foreword considerably. At the beginning of all this, I was very hesitant to invoke the mighty photoshop. Now, after processing some 3000 images, I am extremely familiar with the territory. Of no small help was the workshop at the Campbell Center for Historical Preservation’s Workshop called “Digitizing Museum Collections”.
This epic project has taken over my life since last May. Hundreds of hours have been sunk into this. As of this writing I am still in the process of ‘tagging’ the images in preparation for their eventual delivery into EMu.
It has not been without the occasional snag. I, like many in the world of graphics and photography work on a Macintosh. The Putnam system is PC. This causes some unusual situations. For example, when uploading into the Putnam system, the software will mysteriously double all the images with a “ghost” image, that causes no end of confusion. Also, the Putnam system is very sensitive to file headings, an extra space or extraneous piece of punctuation can cause the file to not open at all.
I apologize for the brevity of this report. Every day was simply more of the same.

(legal issues) “The Case of the Thrift Shop Pollock”

Some years ago, c. 1992 C.E., a retired long haul truck driver named Teri Horton bought a large splattery canvas at a local thrift shop. She bargained the owner, Dot, (of Dot’s Thrift Shop), down from eight dollars to five. Teri wanted to give the painting to a depressed friend. Her friend, who was already bummed out, didn’t want it, and besides, it was too large to fit through the trailer door. So Ms. Horton then set it out into her yard sale, where it was suggested by a local art teacher-friend that the canvas looked like it had been painted by Jackson Pollock.
“Who the #$&% is Jackson Pollock?” Ms. Horton famously replied.

That reply became the title of a 2006 documentary, produced by Steven Hewitt and directed by Harry Moses. (1) It is my intention, however, to go beyond that movie and use this story as a spring board to discuss some legal issues, specifically the process of provenance, and its evil shadow, forgery.
But first, let us begin with a summary of the sequence of events:

-Teri Horton, at “Dot’s Spot Thrift” of San Bernardino, California talks Dot down, from $8 to five for a large (app 6″x8″ ft) splattery canvas that she intends to give to a depressed friend.
-Depressed friend rejects canvas, won’t fit in the trailer.
-Horton puts canvas in yard sale, where it is identified as a possible Jackson Pollock.
-Horton begins inquiry process. dead ends.
-Tries to sell painting, gets nowhere. Brings in son, Bill Page to help. Page gets nowhere, begins search for provenance, contacts IFAR.
-Horton makes up story to tell dealers. (2) At least one dealers buys story.
-The International Foundation for Art Research (IFAR) #01.07 Authentication Report concludes “not by the hand of Jackson Pollock”. However, the report is unsigned, the author is unknown.
-Bill Page contacts Peter Paul Biro, a fine art authenticator from Montreal, known for using forensic techniques.
-Biro finds partial fingerprint on the back of the Horton canvas. Finds match on an authentic Pollock canvas in Berlin, but it is “too large”. (3)
-Biro travels to the “Pollock-Krasner House and Study Center” in East Hampton, of Long Island, New York. There, at the former painting studio of Paul Jackson Pollock, he finds a partial finger print on a paint can. (4)
-Biro verifies finger print with forensic specialist as an authentic match for the print on the Horton canvas, based on three bifurcations. (5)
-Biro finds gold flakes (aerosol sprayed) on Horton canvas that match samples from the painting studio.
-Traces of acrylic paint are found on the Horton canvas, that match studio samples. (6)
-Horton finds the book “Framed”, by Tod Volpe (7), and brings him into the mix.
-Volpe forms the “Legends Art Group” in an effort to sell painting, now known as “Untitled, 1948″.
-May. 2008. Teri Horton consigns “Untitled, 1948″ to the Toronto, Ontario Gallery Delisle, asking 50 million.
-November, 2008. A reported break-in at the Gallery Delisle prompts owner Michelle Delisle to move the painting to an undisclosed location, substituting a replica for the contested painting. (Toronto Star, Nov 2008).
This is the last known public whereabouts of the infamous painting that I could uncover. To my knowledge, it has not been sold. My email to Michelle Delisle requesting further information has not been answered. It is my understanding the painting is now back with Teri Horton.

That there is controversy around “Jack the Dripper” should not come as a surprise to anyone. Controversy has followed Pollock like lions following a herd of gazelles.
Mostly about money.
– “Blue Poles (Number 11)” 1973 sale of $1.3 million to the National Gallery of Australia.

“‘$1.3m for dribs and drabs,’ raged one newspaper headline.”
“‘Barefoot drunks painted our $1 million masterpiece’, read another.”
“If there was fear among the Australian public that Blue Poles might be an American con job, its purchase by the new Labor regime under Gough Whitlam probably compounded that distress.” (Heanue)
-The University of Iowa possible sale of “Mural” in 2009. “Mural” was valued at approximately $140 million. A 2008 flood caused heavy damage to the University of Iowa campus, including the Art Museum. At that point, legislators with dollar signs in their eyes thought to sell the DONATED painting for funding. This idea was voted down, but it does still reappear from time to time. (Cook)

Sometimes it was about “Art”.
-‘This is not art–it’s a joke in bad taste’, as a Reynolds News headline put it in 1959. (Molyneux)
Interestingly, the common uproar over the drip technique had a precedent in American art nearly a century before. James McNeill Whistler’s Nocturne in Black and Gold: the Falling Rocket, also used the splatter technique in a nighttime scene of a boat harbor, depicting the fireworks in the sky. Contemporary critic John Ruskin took umbrage at Whistler’s flung “pot of paint”. “I have seen, and heard, much of Cockney impudence before now; but never expected to hear a coxcomb ask two hundred guineas for flinging a pot of paint in the public’s face.” (Anderson and Koval, p 216)
Whistler sued Ruskin for libel, and won. One farthing. About a quarter cent.
Sometimes it was about science.
-In a 1999 article in Nature magazine art historian and physicist Richard Taylor claimed to find fractals (8) in Pollock’s work. The story was widely circulated, causing a number of conservators to approach Taylor about using his fractal method to authenticate “found” Pollocks. By 2006, it had, in fact been employed in such a manner, causing Case University physicists Katherine Jones-Smith and Harsh Mathur to publish their criticism of the fractal authentication method in Nature magazine. (Everts)

Back to our case…
The history of the ownership of an artwork is its “provenance”. Its “pedigree” if you will. It can be a difficult thing to nail down, especially in the case of a very prolific (and generous)artist like Pollock. It is for this reason a catalogue raissoné is established. This is a record of all known works by a given artist. A complete catalogue raissoné of Jackson Pollock will probably never be complete.
IFAR is the pre-eminnent organization for provenance and authentication research. They have their own Art Advisory Council, and an international resource network of independent scholars, connoisseurs and conservators. According to their website (www.ifar.org), “As a nonprofit educational organization with no financial interest in the outcome, IFAR is free to render objective opinions independent of the marketplace and to publish the results of its research. IFAR does not offer monetary appraisals.”
They require an initial $400 nonrefundable deposit, to be applied towards the basic $3000 fee, should IFAR choose to accept the assignment. They make a point of stating that they “will rarely accept a work lacking initial attribution.” They will examine the work in person, and conduct scientific inquiries as needed.
Several experts may be, and usually are, consulted.
A written report is then produced at the end of the investigation, usually identifying the investigators, however, certain circumstances may dictate investigative anonymity (usually due to museum or university affiliation).
The unsigned report that concludes “not by the hand of Jackson Pollock” cites a “flatness and lack of depth” that would be very uncharacteristic of Jackson Pollock, an “over-layering” quality to the elements, elements that should have been more integrated. It mentions the commercial, pre-primed canvas, something Pollock would never use. The black lines should have been more structured and rhythmic. They were disturbed by the omission of this piece from the literature on the artist. Quote; “Above all, one misses the energy and dynamism, and the visual coherence and linear integrity that are hallmarks of Pollock’s style”. (International Foundation for Art Research Authentication Report #01.07)

The “hallmarks of Pollock’s style.” That phrase is the center of our controversy. That “easy to imitate, impossible to reproduce”, style of “action painting” (as it came to be called) is a style so personal it is as unique as a signature. Or a fingerprint.
The critic Harold Rosenberg, in his 1952 Art News essay “The American Action Painters” wrote: “The big moment came when it was decided to paint…just to PAINT”. (Rosenberg, p4)

“At a certain moment the canvas began to appear to one American painter
after another as an arena in which to act- rather than a space in which to reproduce, redesign, analyze or ‘express’ an object, actual or imagined. What was to go on the
canvas was not a picture but an event.” (Rosenberg, p2. Emphasis mine.)

Allan Kaprow, in his critical eulogy The Legacy of Jackson Pollock, in 1957, the year of

Pollock’s death) said:

“The act of painting, the new space, the personal mark that builds its own
form and meaning, the endless tangle, the great scale, the new materials are by
now clichés of college art departments. The innovations are accepted. They are
becoming part of textbooks,” (Kaprow, p2)

Just to be clear: in the case of “Untitled 1948″, the forgery vs. homage question would depend entirely on intention of the original artist. It is equally possible that “Untitled 1948″ was painted purely as a means of self expression as it is that it was done to be a counterfeit Pollock. Many artists at the time copped Pollock’s style, because it was so apparently easy to imitate, many for non-devious reasons, simply as a convenient means of self expression. When Picasso brought cubism into the world, it became the worlds property, so to speak. A technique is not copyrightable, neither is a style. It become another tool in the toolbox. Anyone is free to do an impressionist painting, without claiming to be Cezanne. It is a forgery only when the name is attached.
Therefore, the blame in all this goes to those who would attach Pollock’s name to an otherwise innocent canvas. Misappropriation can actually infringe on copyright, if it can be shown to devalue the existing market for the accepted work. The concept here is derived from French Moral Laws, which are:
1) droit de divulgation. The right of creators to control the circumstances of the public release of the work.
2) droit de paternité. The right to claim authorship of ones one’s work, and the right to have works falsely attributed. There is much more to do with this later under “Defamation”.
3) droit de suite. The right to a share in the fruits of one’s labor.
Also in this mix are the rights to withdraw work from publication, and the right to prevent mutilation of said work. (Maher, p42)

The United States Constitution states:

“The Congress shall have Power… To promote the Progress of Science and
Useful Arts by securing for limited Times to Authors and Inventors the exclusive
Right to their respective Writings and Discoveries…” (United States Constitution, Article 1, Section 8)
Copyright is considered to be “not a natural right, but a social construction… enacted through federal statute.” (Maher) From Supreme Court Justice Sandra Day O’Connor: “It may seem unfair that much of the fruit of the compiler’s labor may be used by others without compensation. As Justice Brennan has correctly observed, however, this is not some “unforeseen byproduct of statutory scheme.” (Harper and Row, 471 U.S., at 589 (dissenting opinion)) It is, rather, “the essence of copyright” (ibid) and a constitutional requirement. The primary objective of copyright is not to reward the labor of authors, but to “Promote the progress of Science and the useful Arts”. (Article 1, section 8, US Constitution)

This would be a good point to talk about the fingerprint. This is a partial print, which in a federal case would be considered circumstantial evidence. Three matching bifurcations (where a ridge will “Y” out) are not uncommon.
It should be noted that this is not the only Pollock “authenticated” by Biro. Ken and Kathy Parker, in 2008 can forward with a “found” Pollock. The painting was given to Ken Parker’s father some twenty years before. It also had a fingerprint on the stretcher. Paul Biro matched it to the one on the Horton painting, as he did for yet another found Pollock, one belonging to Ken Matter some years before. Both the Matter and the Parker paintings have been found to be non-authentic due spectroscopic analysis of the paint, paints that did not come in to being until after Jackson Pollock’s death.
Further independent analysis of the fingerprint by expert Thomas Hanley claimed the print on the infamous paint can was “of no value for identification”. From there, the investigation moved to fingerprint expert Pat Wertheim of the Arizona Department of Public Safety. Wertheim did agree with Biro that the print on the can was identical to the one on the (Parker) painting, but for a very unconventional reason: the print on the painting was a forgery made from an inked rubber cast pulled from the paint can. (Hochfield, ARTnews06/01/2008) (4)

This is no mere “Bonfire of the Vanities”, to quote Thomas Wolfe. This is a veritable inferno.
No one here is completely clean. We are awash in hubris to spare. A forgery wrapped in a falsification of a duplication of a copy… A potentially false attribution as all the players scramble for the gold ring. look at them go….
Teri Horton. The least of our bad actors. That she continued to pursue her quest after being told time and time again that authentication was most unlikely. It was clear, at least to me, that this became a personal vendetta based upon class resentment. No one thinks they can just jump into an 18 wheeler and drive it cross country, as been her life. Any job takes skill set, to do it well takes years of experience. To be an art expert, one looks at art, lots and lots of it for many years. specialized training is involved. Expertise is not democratic. Four of five people may say to ignore that toothache, but if that fifth person is a dentist, that is the one to listen to. I get no sense from Ms Horton any particular insight into Jackson Pollock, his work, or art in general. In fact she still regards it as an ugly painting.
Tod Volpe, pathos be thy name. Money in the air is blood in the water. His book “Framed” shows a life of someone desperate for attention, willing to go to any lengths to achieve it. Opportunistic. manipulative. Searching for an angle.
Paul Biro vs the Art Experts. Both are putting their reputations on the line, both are convinced of their own righteousness. One must be wrong, and only God and Jackson Pollock know which. It all does come down to the money, The fingerprint is the key. It was found to be distorted, oddly, with only a partial match. In a court of law, not enough for a conviction. With 50 million dollars riding on the outcome, the unlikely dime novel trope of the counterfeit fingerprint is not an impossibility. Biro had ample time to take a rubber cement impression from the Devoe paint can at Pollock’s studio. This would account for the distortion.
The Art World needn’t have been so dismissive of Ms Horton, then perhaps none of this would have happened. Don’t be that guy. Mutual respect would haver gone a long way in this situation.
As I consider this case and all the ramifications and nuances, I find I must, unfortunately and without benefit of experiencing the actual piece; go with the nay-sayers. “Untitled 1948″ strikes me as flat. The Pollocks of that period had depth. You felt like you could “see” into them and the space they described. And they were expansive. Extending past the picture plane, giving us a window into infinity. A Shamanic dervish. A moment of complete ego negation, writ large.
Jackson Pollock, himself, has entered the realm of myth. He has become the iconic “beat” post-war mad mute macho artist. Mutterings and cigarette smoke and booze and arcs of paint and the “is-ness” of it all. Paint was paint.The seriousness oh the seriousness of it all.
Some would say the second half of the twentieth century began there.
Even if he had not been anointed by the New York crowd, even if he had not been championed by Clement Greenberg and Harold Rosenberg, he would have still painted. Probably in blessed anonymity.
He was the American Picasso. A Saint fixed in the firmament. The first Great American celebrity-artist, a superstar years before Andy Warhol would coin the term. Like Elvis, or Marilyn, or Jesus, people whose facts of their lives become secondary to the myth of their lives, Pollock’s image overshadows his work and has become his legacy.
And for those of us living as we do in the Post-Pollock Post-Modern, that legacy will no doubt continue to confront and confound us as we struggle forward.


1. Mr. Hewitt is a former producer for 60 minutes. This film feels like an extended 60 Minutes episode. Off-camera questions, separately filmed interviews that seem to answer each other. It was a subject ripe for investigative expose. It is a film that manipulates in a subtle way. It’s not hard to make a pompous ass look foolish. We want to side with Teri Horton. And it looks like a slam-dunk for her.
However, the truth of the matter is much more nuanced than it may seem.

2. The bogus story goes something like this:
Terri acquired the painting from an aging bartender named “Pops” who once owned a bar in Mt. Baldy, California in the 1940s. One snowbound night, Jackson Pollock, who was there with James Cagney, Humphrey Bogart, Clark Gable, Bette Davis, John Wayne, Broderick Crawford, and Joan Crawford suggested they all paint a painting. Jackson of course, always had his paints with him.
“…so anyway, when it was all done and everyone come around with their paintings and everything to show each other, why Jackson’s painting was all on this mirror behind the bar and they were all talking about it and all of a sudden he said ‘wait a minute, I’m not finished with it’ so he got up on the bar and signed it with his dick.” (Transcribed from “Who the #$&% is Jackson Pollock?”)
Apparently, more than one dealer bought into this story. And it is not entirely out of keeping with Pollock’s character. But this particular anecdote is BS.
If you’re going to lie, lie big.

3. Big fingerprint? Turns out there maybe skullduggery afoot. Read on.

4. Jackson Pollock was never fingerprinted. Strange as that may seem. Never.

5. “Bifurcation”- where a fingerprint “Y”s out.

6. Jackson Pollock died in 1956, before the widespread use of acrylics. His surviving wife, Lee Krasner, also a painter, who did use acrylics, used that studio after her husband’s death.

7. Tod Volpe is a piece of work… His tell-all “Framed: America’s Art Dealer to the Stars Tells All” (ECW Press. Ontario, Canada, 2003) reads like the story of the little boy who only wanted to be loved. While bilking his friends and clients out of $1.9 million. (http-//www.nytimes.com/1998/04/22)

8. “Fractal” is a term coined by physicist Benoit Mandelbrot in 1975. Based on the Latin word fractus, meaning “broken” or “fractured”. It is applied to repeating patterns that display at every scale.


Andson, Ronald and Koval, Anne. James McNeill Whistler. Smithmark, New York. 1966.

Biro, Peter. Teri’s Find. http://www.peterpaulbiro.com/teri%20find.html. 19 September, 2013.

Cook, Linda. Art Experts Break Down Pollock Controversy. 28 March, 2011. http-//thegazette.com/2011/03/28/art-experts-break-down-pollock-controversy/.txt

Everts, Sarah. Jackson Pollock Physics. 3 July, 2011. http://cenblog.org/artful-science/2011/07/03/jackson-pollock-physics/

Heanue, Siobhan. Stroke of Genius; the Legacy of Blue Poles. http://www.abc.net.au/news/2012-08-28/stroke-of-genius-the-legacy-of-blue-poles/4228672

Kaprow, Allan. The Legacy of Jackson Pollock. Art News 57, 6 October, 1958, p.p. 24-26, 55-57.

Malaro, Marie C. A Legal Primer on Managing Museum Collections. Third edition. Smithonian Books, Washington DC, 2012.

Maher,William J. Copyright: The Archivist And The Law Handbook. SAA Workshop September 2014.

Molyneux, John. Expressions of an Age. April, 1999. http://pubs.socialistreviewindex.org.uk/sr229/molyneux.htm

Moses, Harry. Who the #$&% is Jackson Pollock? Written and directed. Picturehouse Films, a division of New Line Cinema, 2007.

Naifeh, Steven and Smith, Gregory White. Jackson Pollock: An American Saga. Woodward/White Inc. 1998.

Phelan, Marilyn E. Museum Law. Roman and Littlefield. Lanham, Maryland, 2014.

Rosenberg, Harold. The American Action Painters. Art News 51/9, December, 1952.

Volpe, Tod. Framed: America’s Art Dealer To The Stars Tells All. ECW Press. Ontario, Canada, 2003.

The Post-Modern Museum; A discourse on Collections and Joseph Cornell

Schafer 1

Kevin Schafer
Ann Rowson Love
MST 500
10 December, 2013

The Post-Modern Museum: Joseph Cornell As Symbol

With this work I shall attempt to parallel the works of the early 20th century artist Joseph Cornell (American, 1903 – 1972) with that of the current state of the post-modern museum, specifically as regards to issues of boundaries of art vs non-art, inclusiveness in collection, etc. By using Mr. Cornell and his works as a symbol, it is my hope to illuminate the current state of post-modern museum philosophies.
We will begin our discussion with a brief overview of Post-Modernism, what it is and how it got there. Then on to Mr. Cornell himself, his work, his influences and influence.
Then it will be time to consider the Post-Modern museum and its current philosophies. We shall end with a summation, conclusion, and reflection.

To speak of the post-modern, we must first speak of the modern. Like trying to pin point the origin of a storm, there are many opinions as to the precise beginnings of modernism. Ezra Pound’s 1934 exhortation to “make it new” is often cited as a point of origin. As a point of fact, it should be noted in light of our exploration of post- modernism that this famous quote is actually, appropriately, a “historical pastiche” (North, 2013), having roots in Confucian texts (ibid), as translated into French (ibid), and then translated by Pound into: “Renew thyself daily, utterly, make it new, and again new, make it new”. (ibid). Kunzru (2011), speaking of the modernist international style of architecture calls modernism a move towards “an absolute break with the styles of the past and (that it) embrace(s) the tenets of modernism, chief among which was the idea that form should follow function.” He goes on to say “Initially a radically utopian architecture, dreaming of a rational future uncluttered by superstition and ornament had, by the 1970s, become a rather joyless orthodoxy.”
For a prehistory of post-modernism, many look to the novel “The Life and Opinions of Tristram Shandy, Gentleman” by Laurence Sterne, a nine volume magnum opus first published in 1759. A sprawling and sometimes bawdy novel, the work lifts entire passages from Robert Burton, Francis Bacon, and Rabelais, much to the confusion of Sterne’s contemporary critiques. Plagiarism at the time became appropriation in post-mdern parlance.
Umberto Eco, in the preface to his novel “Il Nome della Rosa (The Name of the Rose)” writes:
“But the moment comes when the avant-garde (the modern) can go
no further, because it has produced a metalanguage that speaks of impossible
texts (conceptual art). The postmodern reply to the modern consists of recognizing
the past, since it cannot really be destroyed, because its destruction leads to silence,
must be revisited; but with irony, not innocently. I think of the postmodern attitude
of that as a man who loves a very cultivated woman and knows he cannot say
to her, ‘I love you madly’, because he knows that she knows (and that she knows
that he knows) that these words have already been written by Barbara Cartland.
Still, there is a solution. He can say, ‘As Barbara Cartland would put it, I love you madly’.” (Jenks, p 96).
Ihab Hassan in his Paracriticisms: Seven Speculations of the Times, Urbana, Il. 1985, pp 123-4 (Jenks, p 205) tables a few differences between the modern and the post-modern, e.g. the modern would include Romanticism/ Symbolism, Design, and Hierarchy, contrasted with the post-modern equivalents of Paraphysics/ Dadaism, Chance, and Anarchy, respectively. The list goes on. The Empire State Building = Modern. I.M. Pei = Post-Modern. Marylyn Monroe = Modern. Madonna = Post-Modern.

Joseph Cornell was born on Christmas Eve of 1903 in South Nyack, New York. He was the first of four children. His father, Joe, was a traveling salesman. His mother, Helen, seven years younger than her husband, came from a prominent family. His two sisters, Elizabeth and Helen each arrived about a year apart after Young Joseph, in 1905 and ’06 respectively. Younger brother Robert came along in 1910.
Young Joseph Cornell would often compare his father to a “magician”, who “would return from work pulling gifts out of his coat pockets” (Solomon, p 8). And, quite possibly, for Joe Sr.’s habit of disappearing. On April 30, 1917, Joe Sr. disappeared forever, having succumbed to “pernicious anemia” (a condition similar to leukemia) leaving Joseph, aged thirteen, as the man of the house. Slightly over a decade later, on May 9th, 1929, Joseph, mother Helen, and Robert, who suffered from severe cerebral palsy, would move into the house where he would spend the rest of his life, 37-08 Utopia Parkway, Flushing, New York.
A quiet and unassuming gentleman, lifelong bachelor, and at the end a recluse, Cornell survived three major art movements: surrealism, abstract expressionism, and pop; without succumbing to any one of them. Even today he casts a long shadow, and his influence, acknowledged or not, persists.
He is best known for his boxes, or “cabinets”, collages, assemblages, films. Every new wave discovers Cornell and embraces him. Ephemera, found objects, were his media, dream memory was his theme.
The innate need to collect has always been with us ever since our days as hunter/gatherers. Trophies from the hunt, the spoils of war… the curiosity cabinets of the newly minted bourgeoisie of the 15th century, are all examples of this need.
And now to the museum, that “house of the muse”.
The museum, any museum, all museums, regardless of mission, are, at their most basic, a kind of collage. Disparate pieces of previously, not directly related, pieces of culture and its adjuncts are placed in proximity, recontextualized, resonating and overlapping their invisible iceberg histories… reflecting the values of individuals, committees, or even whole societies into a gestalt atmosphere of learning and contemplation.

Now in this Digital Age, as we look back on the Party that was Post-Modernism… and specifically the post-modern museum. From where I stand, it seems that as long as museums contain objects, it will forever remain in the Post-Modern, despite its digital trappings. And like Joseph Cornell, will continue to revered and venerated, a perfect expression, found through time.

It is somewhat odd to re-consider post-modernism now in this digital age. It was the Last Big Thing of the Before. It was an Is and is now a Was. So it is fitting we re-consider Joseph Cornell in this context. He too was the end of his era, assembling the flotsam and jetsam of the remains of his days.
Modernism was to make it new, post – modernism said all things are valid, the digital age now says all points of view are valid and equal.

Eco, Umberto. “The Postscript to The Name of the Rose: Postmodernism, Irony, the
Enjoyable” from “The Post-Modern Reader” (ed. Charles Jenks). Preston, Cornwall, UK: John Wiley and Sons, pp. 95 – 113, (2011).
Haberkorn, Christine. “Transforming the Invisible: The Postmodernist Visual Artist as a Contemporary Mystic – A Review” http://cejournal.org/GRD/Invisible.pdf (2007). Web.
Hartigan, Lynda Roscoe. “Joseph Cornell: Navigating the Imagination” New Haven, CT: Peabody Essex Museum. (2007).
Jenks, Charles. “What Then is Post-Modernism?” from “The Post-Modern Reader” (ed. Charles Jenks). Preston, Cornwall, UK: John Wiley and Sons, pp. 14-37, (2011).
Kunzru, Hari. “Postmodernism: From the Cutting Edge to the Museum”. Thegaurdian,com 15 September, 2011. 23 November, 2013
North, Michael. “The Making of ‘Make It New’.” Guernicamag.com 15 August, 2013. 24 November, 2013 Web.
Solomon, Deborah. “Utopia Parkway: The Life and Work of Joseph Cornell” New York, NY: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, (1997).

Museum Administration; A Case Study

Kevin Schafer
Pam White/ Tim Schiffer
MST 505
12 December, 2013

The Circus World Museum v. the Wisconsin Historical Society: A Case Study

“To collect, preserve, and interpret archival material on American circus
history, maintain and operate a circus museum, library, and research center,
and encourage an appreciation of the historic role of the circus through
educational programming and outreach programs.”
-mission statement, The Circus World Museum.

On page two hundred fifty of the Executive Budget for the State of Wisconsin, dated February 2013, Governor Scott Walker made the following recommendation: “The Governor recommends providing funding for the Circus World Museum to operate as a historic site to preserve the collections, increase operational efficiency and promote tourism.” (Italics mine). This declaration of the Circus World Museum (CWM) as a historic site would, in effect, take management and operations away from the Circus World Museum Foundation (CWMF), under which it had been running since its inception, and place it under the sole control of the Wisconsin Historical Society (WHS).

In 1884, the Ringling Brothers began their first official tour as a traveling circus, starting from their headquarters in Baraboo, Wisconsin. The circus grew, and in a few short years, went from traveling by wagon train to a full out rail road show. They maintained Baraboo as a winter quarter until 1918. That is when they combined with the Barnum and Baily Circus, (which they officially bought back in 1908), creating the largest and most successful traveling circus in American history.
It was at the Baraboo location, in 1954, that former Ringling Brothers attorney, John Kelly incorporated The Circus World Museum. The site was deeded to what is now the Wisconsin Historical Society, (then the State Historical Society of Wisconsin), and was opened to the public on July 1st, 1959. It was established that the ownership of the Circus World Museum would be under the auspices of the State Historical Society, but to be operated and managed, however, by the independent Circus World Museum Foundation, Inc. as a lease-mangement agreement, a situation that stood without question for over half a century.

Scott Kevin Walker, a Republican, (b. 1967) took the office of Governor of the State of Wisconsin January 3, 2011 after obtaining 52% of the vote in the 2010 general election. A fiscal and social conservative in a state known for its progressive politics (1), his administration faced many controversies early on. After a conflict with the public unions in 2012, Governor Walker faced down a recall election, which he won with 53% of the general vote. This made him the third governor ever to face a recall, and the first to survive one.

2003 – The Last Year For The Great Circus Parade in Milwaukee
The Circus Parade tradition began as a way of announcing the arrival of the circus into town. This is the “why” of the painting and ornamentation of the wagons. The CWM’s first director, Charles “Chappie” Fox, with the cooperation of Ben Barkin of Schlitz Brewery of Milwaukee, re-ignited this tradition in the summer of 1963, bringing publicity and revenue to the CWM. By 1985 it became officially known as “The Great Circus Parade”, and was hosted in turn by Baraboo, Milwaukee, and Chicago.
Currently, the parade cost $1.5 million to stage. It is paid for by “rainy day” funds raised by The Great Circus Parade Inc. accumulated from 1985 to 2003, 2003 being the last year the parade was in Milwaukee. Post 2003, attendance to the CWM dropped.
2007 – Stephen Freese Joins CWMF As Executive Director.
Former State Representative and Speaker Pro Tempore (1991 – 2007) Stephen Freese, (b. 1960, R-Dodgeville) becomes the Executive Director of the CWMF after losing his re-electon bid in 2006 to Steve Hilgenberg., (1944-2011, D-Appleton).
2008 – Local Flooding Takes Toll On Visitor Revenues.
“In June, 2008, much of the midwestern United States received over 12 inches
of rainfall as several storm systems sequentially impacted the region. The Midwest had experienced wet conditions for several months prior to the precipitation in June; therefore,
the June rains fell upon saturated soils resulting in runoff that directly flowed into streams.
Resulting stream depths reached historic highs across the Midwest, particularly in many
areas of Iowa and southern Wisconsin.”

“Mitigation Assessment Team Report – Midwest Floods of 2008 in Iowa
and Wisconsin”
Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA)

2009 – Film Company Rents And Repaints 15 Of CWM’s Circus Wagons.
“Water For Elephants” is a 2007 novel by Sara Gruen, and is set in a depression-era circus. Ms. Gruen conducted some research at the CWM’s reference library, and also conferred with Mr. Freese. The film was then produced by Fox 2000, a subsidiary 20th Century Fox. Stephen Freese (who eventually had a cameo in the film), “proactively sent the studio a package letting executives know the museum had all the materials necessary to stage a 1928 circus.” ( ) Fox 2000 rented the circus wagons for $350,000, and considered filming in Wisconsin, but decided against it due to previous Governor Jim Doyle’s revocation of tax credits for film companies. The film was released in April, 2011 to a decent box-office and starred Reese Witherspoon, Robert Pattinson, and Christoph Waltz. It was directed by Francis Lawrence.
2011 – CWMF reports to the WHS “by 2015, would need state aid”
2012 – WHS submits recommendations to Governor.
2/2013 – Governor Scott Walker submits Budget Proposal, recommending CWM become a historic site solely under the WHS, be given $50,000, and its employees become State employees.
4/10/2013 – Freese Testifies To State Legislature.
On this day Mr. Freese set out to refute five points made by the WHS’s report:
1) The Claim: “The Foundation’s 2013 operating budget forecasts $1.54 million in total expenditures and an overall net deficit $97,535.”
The Rebuttal: The WHS ignored the last 11 lines of a “previous statement that show a net gain of $42,465. Our unanimously passed 2013 budget lists a net gain of $70,655.”
2) The Claim: “In 2009, the Foundation allowed a California film company to rent and repaint 15 historic circus wagons for the movie Water For Elephants. A portion of the proceeds from the film company were restricted to the restoration of these wagons, however, the Foundation used this money for other purposes and the one of a kind treasure remains unrestored.”
The Rebuttal: The restoration was delayed for the film’s release “so we could do a premiere in Baraboo.” Due to the success of the film, restoration was delayed an additional year because “public interest in the wagons was high. Money for the restorations was set aside, and it is still there for the start of the wagon’s restoration this spring.”
3) The Claim: WHS to the Speaker of the Assembly’s Office: “They have spent the Circus World’s endowments to nothing.”
The Rebuttal: Mr. Freese refers to a 2006 (the year before he joined the CWMF) audit by Smith and Gesteland of Madison to indicate the endowments’ value at that point. He then refers to a 2011 audit, (the most recent available at that time), that “shows the endowments are still intact and have grown since we have not even used the interest, which we are allowed to do. Lastly I enclose a copy of a bank statement where these endowments are currently held to show you the funds are still held in the endowments, and are still growing.”
4) The Claim: The WHS document “Circus World Museum Profit (Loss) and Net Assets (Deficit)” shows a net asset of $31,965 for 2010 and a deficit $53,600 for 2011.
The Rebuttal: The WHS document is compared to an audit by Smith and Gestland for the same years, which is in agreement for 2010, but shows a net gain of $247.603 for 2011.
5) The Claim: “Historic site attendance (since 2007) has increased 30% even while dealing with a tornado that forced half a season’s closure at Old World Wisconsin.”
The Rebuttal: According to WHS’ own tracking data, attendance has actually been down for all sites since 2007, “except Stonefield and Pendarvis.”
4/23/2013 – Legislature rejects Walker’s Budget Proposal re: CWM.
5/2013 – Resulting publicity raises attendance by 33% for CWM.
5/16/2013 – CWMF reaches out to WHS to patch things up.
8/16/2013 Stephen Freese resigns as Executive Director of CWMF, to be replaced by Scott O’Donnell.
-Becomes head of Wisconsin Farm Bureau Federation.

1.) e.g.: Robert M. “Fighting Bob” La Follette, Sr., originally a Republican, whom, as a state senator during the lead-up to World War I was one of the few dissenting voices, and then later on as Governor ran on the self-established Progressive Party’s ticket as a candidate for president, eventually taking 17% of the general vote.

http://circusworld.wisconsin history.org/Parade/Eventhistory.aspx




Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). “Mitigation Assessment Team Report-Midwest Floods of 2008 in Iowa and Wisconsin” FEMA P-765 / October 2009.

On Museum Education/Exhibition

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Kevin Schafer
Melissa Mohr
MST 515
10 December, 2013

Interpretive Exhibition: UIMA “THE HERO’S JOURNEY”

“Throughout the inhabited world, in all times and under every circumstances,
myths of man have flourished; and they have been the living inspiration of whatever
else may have appeared out of the activities of the human body and mind. It would
not be too much to say that myth is the secret opening through which the inexhaustible
energies of the cosmos pour into the human cultural manifestation. Religions,
philosophies, arts, the social forms of primitive and historic man, prime discoveries
in science and technology, the very dreams that blister sleep, boil up from the basic, magic ring of myth.”
Joseph Campbell, “The Hero With a Thousand Faces”.

This paper is composed half of recollection, half of reportage, and half of hard research and deep data. For readability and general flow, I have broken it up into the sections being a PROJECT DESCRIPTION, which will include besides the literal project description, and analysis a personal reflection on the meaning of the work. Following that will be a short concise REVIEW OF LITERATURE, going over the source material/ inspirations for this exhibit. Following the BIBLEOGRAPHY will be various APPENDICES, which will be images of the pieces, mock ups of the didactics, budget charts, room lay outs, and proposed activities, you know, for the kids…

In the Fall semester of 2013, our Introduction to Museum Education group, being
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composed of fellow students Noelle Ebert, Sarah Adams, and myself, were given the assignment of designing and proposing an interpretive exhibit based on items culled from the University of Iowa Museum of Art’s K – 12 School Program Collection. The items came from four sub – collections: 1) African Art, 2) American Indian First Peoples, 3) Hindu Icons, and 4) Graphic Novel Comic Art. Our assignment was to choose items from each of the sub – collections and create an exhibit to be placed in the two hundred square foot Education Gallery of the Figge Art Museum of Davenport, Iowa.
We divided up the first three collections, African went to Noelle, American Indian, Sara, and I took the Hindu icons, leaving the graphic novel pieces as a common “pool”.
These seemingly disparate elements posed quite a challenge to us. The graphic novel pages, in particular, did not seem to fit with the other three groups of artifacts. The first concept was one we called “Primitive Sophistication”, in that all these items began as socio-practical things, i.e. vases, tapestries, storytelling things, and then evolved, over time, into things of beauty. Then we noticed that they all, mostly, involved narrative elements. From there it was a short leap to the works of Joseph Campbell and his “mono-mythology”. (More on this later.)
It was observed that the layout of the room was nearly square, 1:1.25, actually. This brought to mind the notion of quadrants as an organizing device. (Relating as it does with the four cardinal compass points, the four seasons, and other universal, elemental concepts, which of course bring to mind Cornell’s “mono – mythology”). The area was quartered, and each quadrant was given its own Hindu god to set a general tone for each section.
Quadrant one we gave to Ganesh, the placer and remover of obstacles, the god of beginnings. The idea for each of the quadrants was to keep with a general theme as indicated by
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its “resident god’, but we were not afraid to play fast and loose with in that. Also into quadrant one went, from the native American collection, the Beaver power figure. from Africa the Mami Wata, the Nigerian twin Figures, the large (52′ x 71′) Kente tapestry. There was the graphic novel page concerning Martin Luther king, and from the Indian collection, a brass plate commemorating Ganesh and Lakshmi, from the third auspicious day of Diwali, of course.
Quadrant two went to Hanuman, the trickster, the Supreme intellectual. As it is with all figures of mythology, born of our collective unconscious, they all have many meanings, particularly the Hindu figures, in that Hinduism is easily the oldest living religion, having a lot of time to add a lot of layers of meaning and symbolism to the characters. A further example of this, we need look no further than our own western religions and we can see how many of the nine billions names of god we adhere to. Given that, as said before, we had to play fast and loose, thematically. Which is the long way of saying that all the figures and artifacts had multiple meaning, so grouping was as much “gut feeling” as academic research.
Also included in quadrant two were the Native American Raven and Owl power figures, two Indian tapestries, the Rama and Sita Nuptials, and the Pabuji ki Phad. There was the graphic novel page Street Angel Pin-Up, and from Africa the Nkisi (Nail) figure, along with the first of two Porro Masks to lead into quadrant three.
Which was being Lorded over by Shiva, The Lord of the Dance, the Creator and the Destroyer, the Revealer and Deceiver. This quadrant was dedicated to the concept of “passages”.
Also from India was a brass plate depicting Krishna and Radha. From the Native American collection were the Buffalo, Rattlesnake, Wolf, and Badger Power Figures. From Africa was the second aforementioned Poro mask, another Kente tapestry, and a “Plank” Mask, and the Sande
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Mask. Rounding out this quadrant was the graphic novel page from Flight, Vol. 3, featuring a Viking.
Which brings us to the journey’s end, quadrant four, presided over by Vishnu, the Supreme Soul, The Master of All, The Lord of the Universe. Filling out this final quadrant were the Native American Mountain Lion, Turtle, and Bear Power Figures, a Yoruba Diviner’s Pouch from the African Collection, a Mandala painting from North Central India, and the Graphic Novel page, “The Golem’s Mighty Swing”.
The general nature and theme of the exhibit leant itself naturally to a minimalist, contemplative approach, I would say, in the main appealing towards what some (J. Falk et all) would rather artlessly call the “recharger” type of visitor, who tends to come to the house of the muse for contemplation and reflection. Four Figge owned black couches were placed two by two, back to front on the short vertical east-west axis of the room, to further facilitate said contemplation of the mysteries of the universe. Bowls of sage and other potpourri were discreetly placed out to enhance the “temple” atmosphere.
Our other Falkian visitor types, were not ignored, however. The open flow of the space allowed for what is referred to as good “universal design”, meaning easy access for the physically challenged, as well as for the “Explorer” type who wished to meander on their own without a set pattern. The “Facilitators” the human guide dogs of the very young and the very old, and those who wish merely to socialize would also appreciate the open, non-aggressive space. Those seeking experience, imaginatively refereed to as “Experience Seekers”, and those who consider themselves to be “Professional/Hobbyists”, those with an interest in the nuts and bolts art of the show, will appreciate the additional material provided by application QR codes
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with the spelled out corresponding websites includes with the Title Signage and the Super-Didactics that cue the suggested path through the exhibit.
Signage and didactics were designed to graphic uniformity, going with white and ultra-marine blue as a color scheme. White and blue, of course have certain celestial connotations, ultra-marine being the “sacred blue” that the french popularized with their famous expression (sacre´ bleu!), that it being formerly made from ground lapis-lazuli, a semi precious mineral not unlike turquoise, reserved for religious paintings depicting The Virgin’s robes. This struck me as an appropriate choice. The font is the tried and true Times Roman, a classic denoting Classicism since the Arch of Trajan.
Signage includes a main title sign, with the shows title and a quote from Joseph Campbell (reprinted at the head of this paper) and an image of Ganesh, pulled from the brochure file itself, situated on a freestanding white temporary wall so that one will see this image when entering from the main corridor. We kept with a very open floor layout so that people could easily enter from any of the other six possible entryways and circumnavigate at will, but it was generally understood that most visitors would be coming in through the main.
Each quadrant had a “super didactic” composed of an explanation of local theme, (beginning, trickster, pathways, the universe) followed by a pithy quote from the usual suspects, that being besides the aforementioned Joseph Campbell, was also T. S. Eliot, William Blake, Carl Jung, and Ralph Waldo Emerson.

This turned into a rather ambitious project. We eschewed the low hanging fruit and shot
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for the stars. Without wanting to put too fine a point on it, the mytho-poetic concept/ conceit was mine, and I thank whatever local deities who were responsible for giving me two partners in crime who are as capable and agreeable as Noelle and Sara. So in summation of all that, whatever failings there may be at the conceptual level here, well, that would be on me.
That being said, and what I hope would be clear, or at least decipherable from the subtext, is the understanding of the identity of the “hero” in this context. Its not about red capes or thunder hammers. Its not about golden boughs or golden fleeces. It is not about the extra-ordinary. It is about the painfully ordinary, the prosaic, the trite and the trivial and occasionally profound travails of life. It is about you, and it is about me, and finally, it is about us. You are the Hero of your story and I am the Hero of mine. This “Hero’s Journey”, in this case, is the journey we are all on, together forever throughout our all too brief lives.

Obviously, a show like this will come from a very strong and detailed literary, folkloric tradition and lineage. many quotes are pulled from the giants of 20th century modernistic thought of an anthropological bend, and of course one can go back to the beginning of humanity itself for source material, however, in that the sun shall continue to rise and the abyss shall continue to gaze also; for practicality and brevity’s sake, the list must be pared down to the main and most vital and germane to our purposes.
The following should be understood, then therefore, to be sources of inspiration. With few exceptions they are not directly sourced. Those that are shall be indicated as such.
“The Golden Bough” by Sir James Frazer was originally published, first as two volumes in
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1890, three volumes in 1900, then, in 1906-15 as a twelve volume work. It is a comparative study detailing world mythologies, and organized in a dispassionate categorical fashion. Mercifully, in 1951 a single volume summation was parsed and published, and is still in print today.
An extremely ambitious work, “The Golden Bough” (the title refers to Virgil’s Aeneid, book VI, wherein the hero, Aeneas, in order to reach his father in the underworld, must bring to Prosepina, the Queen of the Underworld, a bough of gold that grows in the nearby woods) was the first modern attempt to tie together world mythological traditions, and it today understood as an important piece of modernist scholarship.
Picking up where “The Golden Bough” left off is Joseph Campbell’s hugely influential “The Hero With a Thousand Faces” (1949). Joseph Campbell (1904 – 1987) is a much beloved figure within our current culture. Film director George Lucas credits him extensively as an inspiration for his “Star Wars” series. The 1988 six part PBS series, “The Power of Myth” with Joseph Campbell interviewed by journalist Bill Moyers did much to put Campbell’s work in the public spotlight, and is still widely available on DVD today.
“Hero” goes beyond mere cataloging. Campbell’s aim is to find the commonality of our mythologies under what he refers to as the greater “mono-myth”. Mixing Jungian archetypes with figures from world mythologies and still living religions, he details our hero’s journey (hence our title) as a series of stages: beginning in 1.) the ordinary world, the hero is given a 2.) call to action. The hero faces trials with-in and with-out. Upon survival of the trials, the goal, (usually in the nature of some form of Ultimate Self Knowledge) is 3.) achieved, and the hero is returned into the 4.) ordinary world.
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“Myths and Motifs in Literature” (1973) is an anthology edited by David Burrows and is quite an eclectic collection. Heavily indebted to Campbell, Mr. Burrows pulls in such disparate sources as Homer, Aeschylus, John Lennon and Harlan Ellison to further elucidate Campbell’s concepts. A particular personal delight was found buried within; a reprint of Delmore Schwartz’s often referenced “In Dreams Begin Responsibilities” (1938), relating as it does to the “lost father” myth, to be echoed some years later by Jack Kerouac in his novel “On the Road.”
From comic books to classical epic poetry I see the threads of our common, human, mythic experience expressed, and shot through our culture. Joseph Conrad’s “Heart of Darkness” and T.S. Eliot’s “The Wasteland” informed Francis Coppola’s film “Apocalypse Now”. Alan Moore’s epic deconstruction of comic book tropes,”The Watchmen” ultimately owes much to the “Grail Myth”, that being the story of the the seeker, crossed with “The Judgement of Paris” wherein the Seeker is given a choice. Primordial pre-war American Blues songs are filled with restless spirits and wandering souls.
Of course I would be remiss if I did not mention the esteemed John Falk and his seminal “Identity and the Museum Visitor Experience” of 2009 and the follow-up “Museum Experience Revisited”, with Lynne Dierking of 2012. Much has been said of his Visitor Identity Related Motivations. Must I say more?

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Blake, William. “The Portable Blake”. New York: The Viking Press, 1967.
Burrows, David J. (ed) “Myths and Motifs in Literature”. New York: The Free Press, 1973.
Campbell, Joseph. “The Hero With a Thousand Faces”. Novato, CA: New World Library, 2008.
Frazer, Sir James. “The Golden Bough”. New York, The Macmillan Company, 1951.
Falk, J.H. “Identity and the Museum Visitor Experience”. Walnut Creek, CA, Left Coast Press, 2009.
Falk, J.H., Dierking, L.D., “The Museum Experience Revisited”. Walnut Creek, CA, Left Coast Press, 2012.



http://www.cgjungpage.org/ (The Jung Page; Reflections on Psychology, Culture, and Life.)
http://www.jcf.org/new/index.php (joseph campbell foundation)
http://www.learner.org/catalog/extras/vvspot/Eliot.html (Annenberg Learner/Voices and Visions.)
http://www.skepticfiles.org/atheist2/hero.htm (a practical guide to “the hero with a thousand faces”)
http://www.trancendentalism – legacy.tamu.edu/authors/emerson/

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Appendix 1


Quadrant 1

Ganesha (Ganesha Murthi)
India; Hindu
Cast Bronze
The Benevolent Lord of Beginnings,
He Who Places and Removes Obstacles.

King Vol. 3 pp. 10 – 11 panel 5
Ho-Che Anderson
Fantagraphic Books. 2003
Pencil. Ink, on Comic Book Art Board

Ganesh and Lakshmi “Auspicious Diwali”
India; Hindu
(etched and painted plate)
Brass and Enamel Paint
On the third day of Diwali, the light of enlightenment
brings peace, wealth, and prosperity.

Quadrant 2

Hanuman (Hanuman Murthi)
India; Hindu
Resin, Paint
The Trickster, The Supreme Intellectual.

Street Angel Pin-Up
Bryan O’Malley (Canadian, b. 1979)
from Street Angel, St. G Publishing, 2005
Non-Photo Blue Pencil, Ink on Watercolor Paper

Rama and Sita Nuptials
Devendra Kumar Jha (Indian)
India, Bihar, Mithilia; Hindu
The Virtue of Selflessness.

Pabuji ki Ohad/ Par

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India, Rajasthani, Marwar; Hindu
c. C. E. 1919
“The Acetic Deity of Sand Desert”


Natajara (Dancing Shiva Murthi)
India; Hindu
Cast Brass
Lord of the Dance and Passage. Creator, Destroyer, Revealer, Deceiver.

Flight: Volume Three, p 261
Becky Cloonan (American, b. 1980)
Ballantine Books 2006
Pencil, Ink on Bristol Board

Krishna and Radha embossed plate
India; Hindu
A Love Supreme.


Vishnu (Vishnu Murthi)
India; Hindu
Cast Brass
The Supreme Soul. The Master of All, The Lord of the Universe.

Madhubani Painting, Mandala Motif
North Central India
“Infinity in a Grain of Sand.”

Golem’s Mighty Swing
James Sturm (American, b. 1965)
Drawn and Quarterly, 2001
Pencil, Ink on Bristol Board

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Appendix 2
QR Links:
Title Didactic:
http://www.jcf.org/new/index.php (joseph campbell foundation)
http://www.skepticfiles.org/atheist2/hero.htm (a practical guide to “the hero with a thousand faces”)


William Blake Didactic:


Carl Jung Didactic:
http://www.cgjungpage.org/ (The Jung Page; Reflections on Psychology, Culture, and Life.)

T.S. Eliot Didactic:
http://www.learner.org/catalog/extras/vvspot/Eliot.html (Annenberg Learner/Voices and Visions.)

Emerson Didactic:
http://www.trancendentalism – legacy.tamu.edu/authors/emerson/